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Building a Next Gen Crypto Exchange on Solana (w/ Armani, Backpack Exchange) - Solfate Podcast #41

By Solfate

Published on 2023-12-19

Armani Ferrante reveals plans for Backpack Exchange, a new crypto exchange built on Solana with innovative features like daily on-chain proof of reserves and a private blockchain architecture.

The notes below are AI generated and may not be 100% accurate. Watch the video to be sure!

The Genesis of Backpack Exchange

Backpack Exchange emerged from the ashes of the FTX collapse, driven by a vision to create a more transparent and secure cryptocurrency exchange. Armani Ferrante, co-founder of Backpack Exchange, shared the journey of how this ambitious project came to be during an episode of the Solfate Podcast. In the wake of FTX's downfall, Ferrante and his team initially focused on survival and maintaining morale within the Solana ecosystem. It wasn't until after the successful launch of MadLads, approximately six months ago, that they began to seriously contemplate building a new exchange.

The idea for Backpack Exchange didn't come easily. Ferrante admitted that he was initially hesitant due to the complexities involved, particularly on the compliance and operational fronts. He felt confident about the engineering and product aspects but recognized that compliance was the real challenge in creating a robust exchange. This realization led to a pivotal partnership with Kansan, described by Ferrante as "the Tom Brady of crypto law," who brought extensive experience working with various exchanges and regulatory bodies.

The Importance of Exchanges in the Crypto Ecosystem

Ferrante emphasized the critical role exchanges play in the broader cryptocurrency landscape. He views exchanges as bridges between the traditional financial system and the emerging crypto economy. This perspective aligns with Anatoly Yakovenko's vision of Solana building a parallel financial system. Exchanges serve as the connective tissue, allowing value to flow from the traditional world into the crypto economy.

The importance of exchanges extends beyond mere trading functionality. They serve as crucial onboarding platforms for new users entering the crypto space. Ferrante pointed out that even for those who advocate for decentralized applications and self-custody, exchanges like Coinbase have likely onboarded more people to self-custody than most decentralized apps. This progressive onboarding journey, where users start with familiar concepts and gradually learn about the vibrant on-chain ecosystem, is a key advantage that exchanges offer.

Innovative Features of Backpack Exchange

Backpack Exchange aims to differentiate itself through several innovative features and approaches. One of the most significant is its commitment to transparency and verifiability. Ferrante explained their plan to publish daily proofs of the exchange's state, including all user balances, cryptographically attested on the Solana blockchain. This goes beyond the monthly or quarterly proofs offered by many existing exchanges, setting a new standard for transparency in the industry.

The exchange is being built with a unique architecture that Ferrante likens to a private blockchain. Multiple validators will deterministically execute the state of the exchange for every order placement, deposit, withdrawal, and cancellation. This system eliminates single points of failure, as no individual validator instance can unilaterally control or manipulate funds. Ferrante describes this as an "application-specific blockchain" that offers enhanced security and auditability.

Addressing the FTX Problem

In light of the FTX collapse, Backpack Exchange is taking a multi-faceted approach to prevent similar issues. Ferrante outlined several key strategies:

  1. Engineering Transparency: The exchange will provide cryptographic proofs of reserves and user balances, allowing for independent verification.

  2. Corporate Governance: Unlike FTX's centralized decision-making structure, Backpack Exchange will implement proper corporate governance with a board of directors to ensure accountability.

  3. Internal Controls: The company is building out compliance teams and specialized roles like a treasurer to maintain oversight and conduct regular reconciliations.

  4. External Audits: Traditional financial audits will complement the cryptographic proofs to provide additional assurance.

  5. Regulatory Supervision: The exchange has obtained licensing in the UAE, subjecting it to global supervision and rigorous compliance standards.

The Spectrum of Custody

Backpack Exchange is positioned within a broader ecosystem that Ferrante describes as a "spectrum of custody." On one end, there's full self-custody with hardware wallets and seed phrases, representing maximum user control and privacy. On the other end, there's the fully regulated, centralized custody offered by exchanges. Backpack aims to cover this entire spectrum, from their self-custody wallet solutions to the centralized exchange.

This approach allows users to choose their preferred level of control and gradually transition between different custody models as they become more comfortable with cryptocurrency. It's a strategy that recognizes the diverse needs of users, from crypto novices to seasoned traders and privacy-focused individuals.

Challenges in Building an Exchange

Ferrante was candid about the challenges involved in creating a new cryptocurrency exchange. While he considers the technical aspects of building an exchange relatively straightforward for his team, he highlighted that the real difficulties lie in compliance, operations, and navigating the complex regulatory landscape.

The cost and time required to obtain proper licensing, especially in the United States, is substantial. Ferrante estimated that it could cost around $10 million and take 1-2 years to secure licenses in all 50 states. This reality has shaped Backpack Exchange's strategy, leading them to focus initially on international markets while exploring partnerships for U.S. operations.

The Importance of Team and Experience

Throughout the discussion, Ferrante emphasized the critical role that his team's experience and expertise play in making Backpack Exchange possible. He noted that their collective knowledge has allowed them to minimize costs in areas where other teams might struggle, particularly in legal and compliance matters. This advantage has been crucial in bootstrapping the exchange with relatively modest initial capital.

The ability to assemble a team with diverse skills across engineering, compliance, and operations has been a key factor in Backpack Exchange's development. Ferrante stressed that building an exchange is much closer to creating a Wall Street institution than a typical Silicon Valley tech company, requiring a unique blend of talents.

Launch Plans and Market Focus

Excitingly, Ferrante revealed that Backpack Exchange was set to list its first markets within days of the podcast recording. He mentioned plans to launch with a new token from an established project in the broader crypto ecosystem, hinting at partnerships and exclusive listings that could attract users to the platform.

While the exchange aims to serve a global audience, Ferrante acknowledged the challenges of operating in the United States due to regulatory complexities. The initial focus will be on international markets, where Ferrante sees greater opportunities for growth and innovation. For U.S. operations, Backpack Exchange is exploring partnerships with licensed entities to provide custody and liquidity services, allowing them to enter the market more quickly while working towards their own licensing in the future.

Open Source and Transparency

Addressing questions about the open-source nature of Backpack's projects, Ferrante explained their current stance. The Backpack wallet extension is planned to be made source-available again, potentially with a change in license. However, the exchange codebase will likely remain closed-source for practical reasons, including marketing strategies and the need to protect sensitive information about upcoming listings and features.

This balanced approach reflects Backpack's commitment to transparency while also recognizing the realities of operating a competitive business in the fast-paced cryptocurrency industry. Ferrante's background in open-source development informs this decision, acknowledging both the benefits and challenges of maintaining open-source projects alongside a commercial enterprise.

The Broader Vision for Backpack Exchange

Backpack Exchange is not just aiming to be another cryptocurrency trading platform. Ferrante's vision extends to creating a comprehensive ecosystem that bridges traditional finance with the crypto economy. By offering a spectrum of services from self-custody wallets to a fully regulated exchange, Backpack aims to cater to users at all levels of crypto sophistication.

The exchange's focus on transparency, security, and regulatory compliance positions it as a potential leader in the post-FTX era of cryptocurrency exchanges. By implementing features like daily on-chain proofs of reserves and a multi-validator architecture, Backpack Exchange is setting new standards for exchange security and user trust.

Impact on the Solana Ecosystem

As a project built on Solana, Backpack Exchange represents a significant addition to the blockchain's ecosystem. The exchange's innovative use of Solana's technology for proofs and its high-performance architecture aligns well with Solana's focus on speed and efficiency. This synergy could potentially drive more users and developers to the Solana ecosystem, further solidifying its position as a leading blockchain for decentralized finance and applications.

Regulatory Approach and Global Expansion

Backpack Exchange's approach to regulation is proactive and global in scope. By securing licensing in the UAE and working closely with regulators, the exchange is positioning itself to operate compliantly across multiple jurisdictions. This strategy could give Backpack Exchange an advantage in expanding to new markets, especially in regions where regulatory clarity is emerging for cryptocurrency businesses.

The exchange's focus on international markets also reflects a recognition of cryptocurrency's global nature. While many exchanges have focused heavily on U.S. markets, Backpack's strategy to target diverse international audiences could tap into underserved markets and drive adoption in regions where cryptocurrency use is growing rapidly.

User Experience and Onboarding

A key focus for Backpack Exchange is creating a seamless user experience that caters to both crypto novices and experienced traders. The integration with Backpack Wallet provides a natural onboarding path, allowing users to start with a familiar wallet interface and gradually explore more advanced trading features on the exchange.

This integrated approach could significantly lower the barriers to entry for new cryptocurrency users. By providing a consistent experience across self-custody wallets and the centralized exchange, Backpack aims to educate users about different custody models and empower them to make informed decisions about how they manage their digital assets.

Technical Innovations

The technical architecture of Backpack Exchange represents a novel approach to building cryptocurrency exchanges. By implementing a private blockchain model with multiple validators, the exchange aims to combine the security and transparency benefits of blockchain technology with the performance and regulatory compliance required for a centralized exchange.

This hybrid model could set a new standard for exchange architecture, potentially influencing how future exchanges are built. The use of daily on-chain proofs of reserves is particularly noteworthy, as it provides a level of transparency that goes beyond what most current exchanges offer, without compromising on the performance needed for high-frequency trading.

Challenges and Future Outlook

Despite the optimism surrounding Backpack Exchange, Ferrante was candid about the challenges ahead. Building and operating a global cryptocurrency exchange involves navigating complex regulatory landscapes, managing large amounts of user funds, and competing in a crowded market. The team's focus on compliance and operational excellence will be crucial in overcoming these hurdles.

Looking forward, the success of Backpack Exchange could have significant implications for the broader cryptocurrency industry. If the exchange can deliver on its promises of enhanced transparency, security, and user experience, it could help restore trust in centralized exchanges following the FTX collapse. This, in turn, could drive greater institutional and retail adoption of cryptocurrencies.

Community Engagement and Feedback

Ferrante emphasized the importance of community feedback in shaping the development of Backpack Exchange. As the platform rolls out its beta version, the team is actively seeking input from users to refine and improve the exchange's features. This community-driven approach aligns well with the ethos of the cryptocurrency space and could help Backpack build a loyal user base.

The integration with the existing Backpack Wallet community, particularly the MadLads NFT holders who received early access, demonstrates the exchange's strategy of leveraging its existing ecosystem to bootstrap adoption. This approach could provide valuable initial liquidity and user engagement as the exchange launches its first markets.

The Role of Decentralization

While Backpack Exchange is a centralized platform, Ferrante's discussion highlighted the team's appreciation for the principles of decentralization that underpin the cryptocurrency movement. The exchange's architecture, which distributes control across multiple validators, represents an attempt to incorporate elements of decentralization into a regulated exchange structure.

This balanced approach recognizes the current realities of the financial system while still pushing towards greater transparency and user empowerment. It reflects a pragmatic view that centralized exchanges will continue to play a crucial role in crypto adoption, even as decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols evolve.

Education and Progressive Decentralization

An underlying theme in Ferrante's vision for Backpack Exchange is the role of education in driving cryptocurrency adoption. By offering a spectrum of custody options and gradually introducing users to more advanced crypto concepts, the exchange aims to serve as an educational platform as much as a trading venue.

This approach aligns with the concept of "progressive decentralization," where users can start with familiar, centralized services and gradually move towards more decentralized options as they become more comfortable with the technology. Backpack's integrated ecosystem of wallet and exchange is well-positioned to guide users along this journey.

The Importance of Corporate Culture

Ferrante's insights into the operational aspects of running an exchange highlighted the importance of establishing a strong corporate culture focused on integrity and accountability. The contrast drawn with FTX's apparently chaotic internal structure underscores the need for clear roles, responsibilities, and oversight in managing a financial platform handling significant user funds.

The emphasis on building out compliance teams, implementing proper management structures, and fostering a culture of accountability could set Backpack Exchange apart in an industry that has sometimes prioritized rapid growth over operational excellence.

Partnerships and Ecosystem Development

While details were limited, Ferrante hinted at partnerships and collaborations that will be crucial to Backpack Exchange's growth. The mention of an upcoming token listing from an established project suggests that the exchange is actively working to build relationships within the crypto ecosystem.

These partnerships could be key to Backpack's success, particularly in navigating complex regulatory environments like the United States. The strategy of potentially partnering with licensed entities to enter certain markets demonstrates a flexible approach to expansion that could accelerate the exchange's growth.

The Future of Cryptocurrency Exchanges

Backpack Exchange's development comes at a crucial time for the cryptocurrency industry, as it grapples with the fallout from high-profile exchange collapses and increasing regulatory scrutiny. Ferrante's vision for a more transparent, secure, and user-friendly exchange platform reflects broader trends in the industry towards greater accountability and professionalism.

If successful, Backpack Exchange could help shape the future of cryptocurrency trading platforms, setting new standards for transparency, security, and user experience. The exchange's focus on bridging traditional finance with the crypto economy positions it well to capture the growing interest in digital assets from both retail and institutional investors.


The development of Backpack Exchange represents an ambitious effort to create a next-generation cryptocurrency exchange that addresses many of the shortcomings exposed by recent industry events. By combining innovative technical solutions with a strong focus on compliance and operational excellence, Backpack aims to restore trust in centralized exchanges while pushing the boundaries of what's possible in crypto trading platforms.

As the exchange prepares to launch its first markets, the cryptocurrency community will be watching closely to see if Backpack can deliver on its promises. If successful, it could mark a significant step forward for the Solana ecosystem and the broader crypto industry, providing a model for how exchanges can operate transparently, securely, and in compliance with evolving regulatory standards.

The journey of Backpack Exchange, as outlined by Armani Ferrante, offers valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities in building critical infrastructure for the crypto economy. It underscores the importance of experienced teams, innovative technology, and a commitment to user trust in driving the industry forward. As the crypto landscape continues to evolve, projects like Backpack Exchange will play a crucial role in shaping its future and bringing digital assets closer to mainstream adoption.

Facts + Figures

• Backpack Exchange was conceived about six months ago, after the successful launch of MadLads NFTs.

• The exchange is being built with a unique architecture likened to a private blockchain, with multiple validators executing the state of the exchange.

• Backpack Exchange plans to publish daily proofs of the exchange's state, including all user balances, cryptographically attested on the Solana blockchain.

• Armani Ferrante estimates it could cost around $10 million and take 1-2 years to secure licenses in all 50 U.S. states for a crypto exchange.

• Backpack Exchange has obtained licensing in the UAE, subjecting it to global supervision and rigorous compliance standards.

• The exchange plans to list its first markets within days of the podcast recording, featuring a new token from an established project.

• Backpack Exchange is exploring partnerships with licensed entities to provide custody and liquidity services for U.S. operations.

• The Backpack wallet extension is planned to be made source-available again, while the exchange codebase will likely remain closed-source.

• Backpack Exchange aims to cover the entire spectrum of custody, from self-custody wallets to fully regulated centralized exchange services.

• The exchange implements a multi-faceted approach to prevent issues similar to the FTX collapse, including enhanced corporate governance and internal controls.

Questions Answered

What is Backpack Exchange?

Backpack Exchange is a new cryptocurrency exchange being built on Solana. It aims to provide a more transparent and secure trading platform, with innovative features like daily on-chain proof of reserves and a private blockchain architecture. The exchange is designed to bridge the gap between traditional finance and the crypto economy, offering a spectrum of services from self-custody wallets to fully regulated exchange operations.

How does Backpack Exchange differ from other crypto exchanges?

Backpack Exchange distinguishes itself through several key features. It plans to publish daily cryptographic proofs of the exchange's state on the Solana blockchain, offering unprecedented transparency. The exchange uses a unique architecture similar to a private blockchain with multiple validators, enhancing security and eliminating single points of failure. Additionally, Backpack focuses on strong corporate governance and compliance measures to prevent issues that have plagued other exchanges.

When will Backpack Exchange launch?

According to Armani Ferrante, Backpack Exchange was set to list its first markets within days of the podcast recording. The initial launch will feature a new token from an established project in the crypto ecosystem. However, the full rollout of features and services will likely be gradual, with different functionalities becoming available over time as the exchange expands its operations and obtains necessary regulatory approvals in various jurisdictions.

How is Backpack Exchange addressing regulatory compliance?

Backpack Exchange is taking a proactive approach to regulatory compliance. They have obtained licensing in the UAE, which subjects them to global supervision and rigorous compliance standards. For operations in the United States, they are exploring partnerships with licensed entities to provide custody and liquidity services while working towards obtaining their own licenses. The exchange is also implementing strong internal controls, compliance teams, and corporate governance structures to ensure adherence to regulatory requirements.

Will Backpack Exchange be available in the United States?

While Backpack Exchange aims to serve a global audience, immediate availability in the United States faces regulatory challenges. Ferrante explained that obtaining licenses in all 50 states could cost around $10 million and take 1-2 years. As an interim solution, Backpack is exploring partnerships with licensed U.S. entities to offer services to American users. The long-term goal is to obtain their own licenses and operate directly in the U.S. market.

How does Backpack Exchange ensure the security of user funds?

Backpack Exchange employs several measures to ensure the security of user funds. The exchange's architecture uses multiple validators to execute transactions, preventing any single point of failure. Daily on-chain proofs of reserves allow users to verify the exchange's solvency. Additionally, the team is implementing strict internal controls, including regular asset reconciliations and oversight from dedicated compliance and treasury teams.

What role does Solana play in Backpack Exchange?

Solana serves as the underlying blockchain technology for Backpack Exchange. The exchange leverages Solana's high-performance capabilities to implement its innovative features, such as daily on-chain proofs of reserves. By building on Solana, Backpack Exchange benefits from the blockchain's speed and efficiency, which are crucial for operating a high-volume trading platform. The project also contributes to the growth of the Solana ecosystem by bringing new users and liquidity to the network.

How does Backpack Exchange plan to attract users and liquidity?

Backpack Exchange plans to attract users through several strategies. They are leveraging their existing ecosystem, including the Backpack Wallet and MadLads NFT community, to bootstrap initial adoption. The exchange is also focusing on providing a superior user experience, enhanced transparency, and innovative features to differentiate itself from competitors. Partnerships with established projects for token listings and a focus on international markets where there's less competition are also part of their strategy to build liquidity and user base.

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